Wednesday, October 24, 2012

Fluency and a Freebie

Hi!  I'm Sally from Elementary Matters.  I've been teaching about a 100 years.  (OK, actually 35) and I love it as much as I did when I was in my 20s.  I'm passionate about how the brain works, and I'm passionate about teaching reading.

These are the Common Core Standards for fluency in second grade:

Click image to download freebie.
2.RFS.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
2.RFS.4a Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
2.RFS.4b Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
2.RFS.4c Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

As I look through the fluency standards for all the grades, they are almost word for word the same as above.

The experts tell us that fluency is directly related to comprehension.  Naturally, if a child is struggling to figure out the words in a text, it's going to be tough for them to get the meaning.  If the words flow smoothly, comprehension is more likely.

The experts define fluency with 4 phrases:
  1. automaticity in word recognition
  2. accurate word recognition
  3. prosody, or expression
  4. sufficient to permit comprehension
So, how do we build fluency?
  • Practice both phonetic patterns as well as sight words. 
  • Practice reading phrases and sentences a few words at a time. (Phrasing)
  • Practice reading simple paragraphs with expression.  
  • Oral Reading with a partner.  (using text of appropriate difficulty... "just right" text! 95 - 100% accuracy) 
  • Click image for Third Grade Dolch phrases.
  • Monitored Independent Reading
Personally, I love having my kids read phrases with funny voices or with certain character traits.  We always manage to have some fun building our skills.

The above freebie is for the pre-primer Dolch level. HERE's a set for Primer Level.  HERE's the First Grade Set.  HERE is the Second Grade Set.  Click HERE for the Third Grade set.  Click HERE for the combination set of all phrases.


  1. Hey there!! I love these! I've been trying to find things to improve my students fluency. I can't seem to get the pre-primer one to download. I can get to TPT and when I click download it won't work. I've added the Primer to my cart just fine.


    1. Jammie, if you're still having trouble, email me at The pre-primer one is the freebie, which I'd be glad to send you!

      Sally from Elementary Matters


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